Archive for November, 2010
Study Results: Human pheromones increase flirtatious behavior and ratings of attraction
From 2007 to 2009 we presented results five times during four different scientific assemblies (listed below). We showed that a chemical mixture of androstenol and androsterone increases flirtatious behavior in women within 15 minutes of exposure. These women also reported that they were significantly more attracted to the man wearing the mixture. This same mixture is used in the Scent of Eros product for men. (more…)
Product comparisons and human pheromone sciences
The mixture of chemicals in Scent of Eros for men has been shown to increase observed flirtatious behaviors and increase self-reported levels of attraction in a study of college women. The observed interaction was during 15 minutes of exposure to the mixture (or not), being worn by a male study participant. Many people are aware that original research on the effects of human pheromones on menstrual synchrony came in reports from a study of college women. I hope that additional studies of human pheromones will, like the 2007-2009 series of studies by Kelahan, Hoffmann and Kohl, continue to detail the chemicals used, the methodology used, and report on the time that might be expected for human pheromones to cause a change in behavior (e.g., 15 minutes).
Given the reported findings by Kelahan, Hoffmann and Kohl, I am now willing to write about product comparisons. (more…)read more November 08, 2010 • 10:21 AM
Pheromones and sexual behavior in birds
Sexual arousal, is it for mammals only? Hormones and Behavior, In Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available online 9 November 2010 Gregory F. Ball, Jacques Balthazart
The article (linked above) about avian sexual arousal may interest those who are familiar with the gene-cell-tissue-organ-organ system pathway that is required to link sexually dimorphic sensory input from the social environment to sex differences in behavior. Unlike the observational / theoretical approach of early ethologists, this article details the biological basis of sex differences in behavior associated with sensory input. As is the case with rats and most if not all other mammals, olfactory cues condition the sexual response. Conditioning is via experience and can also be associated with arbitrary sensory cues. Though the overriding influence of olfactory cues is obscured by some statements (e.g., “Quail, like other birds, predominantly use visual and auditory stimuli in their social life while olfactory or tactile sensations only play a minor role…”), those interested in looking further will read (e.g., …”neural activation (c-fos induction) observed during copulation in male quail primarily results from the perception of olfactory stimuli originating from the female…”) Olfactory primacy is central to my model for the development of sexual preferences across species (e.g, including birds).
See also (full text available for free) Site-specific effects of anosmia and cloacal gland anesthesia on Fos expression induced in male quail brain by sexual behavior. Taziaux M, Keller M, Ball GF, Balthazart J. Behav Brain Res. 2008 Dec 1;194(1):52-65. “These results therefore call for a re-analysis of the role of olfaction in the control of sexual behavior in birds…”read more November 21, 2010 • 1:11 PM
Epigenetics, science fiction, and scientific fact
In his book “Darwin’s Radio” (1999, Del Rey) and his sequel “Darwin’s Children” (2003, Del Rey), science fiction author and novelist Greg Bear successfully predicted that human endogenous retroviruses are involved in human speciation. His new subspecies of humans communicated with pheromones, as do other species from yeasts to non-human primates. This example of science fiction becoming fact contributes to a scientific understanding of epigenetics and human pheromones via a forward-thinking author’s grasp of molecular biology and his willingness to take the next logical step for his readers. (more…)read more November 22, 2010 • 4:20 PM
Molecular biology and social science theory
As I suspected might happen in the evolutionary psychology discussion group, a discussant incorporated molar level social science that I think skews the meaning and interpretation of what’s happening at the molecular level. The discussion about biological facts and social science theory leads nowhere when the facts change. For example, there are social scientists who are convinced that inbreeding is not detrimental to species survival. (more…)read more November 29, 2010 • 7:57 AM
Is it what he or she sees in you, or is it your pheromones?
The expression of male secondary sexual characteristics is regulated by testosterone (T). Males with higher T levels are preferred by females in many species (Kohl, 2007). Roney, Simmons & Gray (in press) indicate that something other than facial cues of masculinity causes women to choose for visually perceived T-associated facial features. The female preference for higher T levels is a function of pheromones in other species.
Estradiol levels of females increase sensitivity and specificity for androgenic male pheromones, and predict preferences for T-associated androgenic male pheromones. This makes androgenic male pheromones, which are associated both with T production and with male secondary sexual characteristics, the most likely link between higher T levels and female preferences in all mammals. (more…)read more November 17, 2010 • 7:15 AM
Conditioning of the human pair bond by human pheromones
Few people seem to realize the importance of human pheromones to their relationship behavior. The pair bonding that is typically associated with oxytocin by others is first and foremost influenced by pheromones. Oddly, this was suggested more than a decade before Harold Persky included the following paragraph in his book (cited below). As others begin to understand the chemistry of copulins, human pheromone research may progress from marketing claims to scientific facts–as quoted here.
“What is the significance of this periodic fluctuation in the male’s T [testosterone]? Several possibilities can be suggested: (1) the husband’s testosterone level has become entrained to the wife’s menstrual cycle reflecting the pair bonding of the two partners, or (2) a form of communication exists between the two partners whereby the female informs the male that she has ovulated and he responds, like the dominant rhesus monkey, with an increase in his testosterone level facilitating his entire sexual response cycle. These two hypotheses are not necessarily antithetical; in fact, they may be highly compatible in that the first possibility provides a mechanism to reenforce the couple’s pair bonding, and the second reenforces the couple’s reproductive capacity.” – p. 108
Persky, H. (1987) Psychoendocrinology of Human Sexual Behavior. New York: Praeger.read more November 03, 2010 • 6:34 PM
Human pheromones work by effecting hormones that affect behavior
Despite the evidence that pheromones effect testosterone levels and sexual arousal in mammals — including non-human primates — some researchers continue to insist that human pheromones do not exist. Marketers correctly tell you that human pheromones exist, but typically they do not tell you what pheromones are contained in the products they are trying to sell you, or why their products work — if they do. Personally, I have been too caught up in the science of human pheromones to pay much attention to marketing. But from time to time, I intend to better inform others via posts to this domain that help to explain why the pheromones marketed on this site work.
Here, I am responding to the number of relatively uninformed people who are writing essays that tell others about how pheromones work, but who fail to provide any evidence for their claims. In this case, I’ve included citations to research that helps to detail how copulins work. The citations support a scientific approach to marketing human pheromone-enhanced products, like The Scent of Eros products that I formulated.
Copulins are olfactory/pheromonal stimuli from women (human pheromones) that appear to condition increased testosterone and sexual arousal in men. Male marmosets are aroused by the olfactory/pheromonal stimuli from novel peri-ovulatory females; they exhibit increased rates of sniffing and erections and a significant elevation of serum testosterone levels (Ziegler et al., 2005). Men also show this elevation of serum testosterone levels when exposed to olfactory/pheromonal stimuli associated with ovulatory-phase women. This testosterone increase is associated with increases in the favorable assessment of photographs of women. (Jutte & Grammer, 1997). Simply put, the ovulatory-phase olfactory/pheromonal input makes the women look better to men.
Kohl (2007), noted that this testosterone response to olfactory/pheromonal input has been repeatedly indicated or reported in findings from non-human animal studies and from human studies. In mammals, short-term exposure of males to females is linked to a testosterone increase in men, as well as in rats, mice, rabbits, bulls, rams, and monkeys. The testosterone increase in non-human mammals is believed to be due to the effect of olfactory/pheromonal conditioning of a luteinizing hormone response that precedes the testosterone increase (Graham & Desjardins, 1980).
Jutte A & Grammer, K (1997). Female pheromones modify men’s physiology and assessments of women. International Symposium on Olfaction and Taste XII and AchemS XIX. San Diego, California.read more November 03, 2010 • 7:42 AM
Results: increased flirtatious behavior and self-reported attraction
From 2007 to 2009 we presented results five times during four different scientific assemblies (listed below). We showed that a chemical mixture of androstenol and androsterone increases flirtatious behavior in women within 15 minutes of exposure. These women also reported that for some unknown reason they were significantly more attracted to the man wearing the mixture. This same mixture is used in the Scent of Eros product for men. (more…)read more November 22, 2010 • 7:02 AM