New trees of life

July 23, 2014 | James Kohl

Untangling spider’s webs: Largest-ever study of spider genetics shows orb weaver spiders do not share common origins

Emphasis: “…contrary to long-held popular opinion, the two groups of spiders that weave orb-shaped webs do not share a single origin.”

My comment: Dobzhansky (1964) attested to the problem that evolutionary theorists have continued to incorporate into their skewed perspectives on biologically-based cause and effect. “The notion has gained some currency that the only worthwhile biology is molecular biology. All else is “bird watching” or “butterfly collecting.” Bird watching and butterfly collecting are occupations manifestly unworthy of serious scientists!”

Obviously, comparisons cannot be made based only on morphological phenotypes.

If the two groups of spiders do not share a single origin, what species do share a common origin?

In the journal article, compositional homogeneity in all of the amino acids and taxa included was addressed in the context of morphological similarities and behavioral diversities. The differences in the behavior of spiders is thereby readily linked to nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled amino acid substitutions and cell type differentiation manifested in in the morphology and receptor-mediated behavior of white-throated sparrows.

This “…novel and radical hypothesis of spider evolution…” does more than simply “…set the roadmap toward an until-now elusive spider tree of life.” It reasserts a fact that evolutionary theorists refuse to accept. “Olfaction and odor receptors provide a clear evolutionary trail that can be followed from unicellular organisms to insects to humans (Keller et al., 2007; Kohl, 2007; Villarreal, 2009; Vosshall, Wong, & Axel, 2000).” — Kohl (2012)

See also: Organismal biologists needed to interpret new trees of life. “…biologists will best advance science if they ensure their proposals are consistent with evolutionary trees that are well supported by molecular data, if they look for incompatible evidence and obvious difficulties, and if they evaluate alternative scenarios, as well as their preferred ones.”

Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations via amino acid substitutions that differentiate cell types in species from microbes to man is the only proposal that is consistent with what is known about how ecological variation results in the morphological and behavioral phenotypes of all species. Evolutionary trees need not be given further consideration because they have never consistently been linked by evidence of biologically-based cause and effect to biodiversity.

biologists will best advance science if they ensure their proposals are consistent with evolutionary trees that are well supported by molecular data, if they look for incompatible evidence and obvious difficulties, and if they evaluate alternative scenarios, as well as their preferred ones.Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2014-07-organismal-biologists-trees-life.html#jCp
biologists will best advance science if they ensure their proposals are consistent with evolutionary trees that are well supported by molecular data, if they look for incompatible evidence and obvious difficulties, and if they evaluate alternative scenarios, as well as their preferred ones.Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2014-07-organismal-biologists-trees-life.html#jCp

 

Read more

Evolution of sex differences in cell types: more pseudoscientific nonsense

July 23, 2014 | James Kohl

Demography can favour female-advantageous alleles

Excerpt: “Models with coevolution of local adaptation and dispersal very rarely include sexual reproduction [20,21], even though local variation in sex ratio have been identified as increasing extinction risks [22–24] and can be a significant source of selection for or against dispersal [25,26].”

My comment: Evolutionary theorists seem to largely ignore the fact that sex differences in cell types are nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled, which means they must first be considered in the context of genetically predisposed natural selection for ecological variation in nutrients. In the context of natural selection for food, there is no such thing as the evolution of sex differences in cell types. Sex differences are based on the ability of odors to induce the de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes in other organisms, yeasts are a model organism for the differentiation of all cell types via conserved molecular mechanisms that link microbes to man.

For information about the nutrient-dependent advent of sex differences in the cell types of yeasts, which links conserved molecular mechanisms to sexual differentiation in cell types of all other species see: Gene duplication as a mechanism of genomic adaptation to a changing environment:  “One of the main duplicated gene families are the olfactory receptor proteins [18,117–119] so perhaps their duplication may lead to an increase in sensitivity to a particular odour may be adaptive under certain conditions.”

Ignoring the conserved molecular mechanisms of sex differences in cell types has led evolutionary theorists to a dead end when it comes to attempts to explain homosexual orientation, which is probably the reason models of coevolution rarely include sexual reproduction. Besides, the claim that “Demography can favour female-advantageous alleles” has already been placed into the context of nutrient-dependent sex differences in cell types and the pheromone-controlled physiology of sexual reproduction in yeasts by serious scientists.

For example see: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior “Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (Adler and Hajduk, 1994; de Bono, Zarkower, and Hodgkin, 1995; Ge, Zuo, and Manley, 1991; Green, 1991; Parkhurst and Meneely, 1994; Wilkins, 1995; Wolfner, 1988). That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.”

If you think that models of coevolution of local adaptation can be placed into the context of evolutionary theory by ignoring what is currently known about nutrient-dependent cell type differentiation, you should start thinking about how human homosexual orientation “evolved” before a serious scientist accuses you of touting pseudoscientific nonsense about sexual reproduction based on models of population genetics that fail to consider local ecological variation in yeasts that leads to global ecological adaptations via nutrient-dependent gene duplication without the pseudoscientific nonsense.

“Parenthetically it is interesting to note even the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a gene-based equivalent of sexual orientation (i.e., a-factor and alpha-factor physiologies). These differences arise from different epigenetic modifications of an otherwise identical MAT locus.” (Diamond, Binstock and Kohl, 1996)

Read more

How biodiversity arises

July 21, 2014 | James Kohl

Effects of starvation can be passed to future generations, through small RNAs apparently without DNA involvement

Excerpt: The findings have no immediate clinical application. “However, they do suggest that we should be aware of other things — beyond pure DNA changes — that may have a long-term impact on the health of an organism,” said Dr. Hobert. “In other words, something that happened to one generation, whether famine or some other traumatic event, may be relevant to the health of its descendants for generations.”

My comment: The findings refute all aspects of mutation-initiated natural selection in the context of evolved biodiversity. They replace the pseudoscientific nonsense of population geneticists with facts on how starvation epigentically effects cell type differentiation.

Starvation prompts seemingly futile cycles of thermodynamically regulated protein biosynthesis and degradation. Ecological variation links any nutrient with the potential to cause a base pair change that results in an amino acid substitution to ecological adapations via stablization of the organized genome in organisms that are starving to death.  Starvation-induced changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance link ecological variation and nutrient-uptake to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to man. Changes in the balance lead to amino acid substitutions that differentiate the cell types of species via conserved molecular mechanisms, which is how biodiversity arises.

The claim that “The findings have no immediate clinical application” must be examined in the context another report:

Marmoset sequence sheds new light on primate biology and evolution

Excerpt: [Researchers] “…found marmosets exhibit a significant number of differences in microRNAs and their gene targets compared with humans, with two large clusters potentially involved in reproduction.”

My comment: In my model, differences in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance cause amino acid substitutions that differentiate cell types. Dobzhansky (1973) mentioned the amino acid substitutions in this context: Nothing in Biology Makes Any Sense Except in the Light of Evolution (link opens pdf). “…the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.”

Unfortunately, researchers who think that the transgenerational epigenetic effects of starvation have no clinical significance may not attempt to determine which nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled amino acid substitutions differentiate the cell types of C. elegans from P. pacificus or which amino acid substitutions differentiate the cell types of marmosets from those of other primates.

found marmosets exhibit a significant number of differences in microRNAs and their gene targets compared with humans, with two large clusters potentially involved in reproduction.Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2014-07-marmoset-sequence-primate-biology-evolution.html#jCp
found marmosets exhibit a significant number of differences in microRNAs and their gene targets compared with humans, with two large clusters potentially involved in reproduction.Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2014-07-marmoset-sequence-primate-biology-evolution.html#jCp
Read more

Biology Developments

July 9, 2014 | James Kohl

No one has commented on my posts to the “Biology Developments” Facebook page despite the clear indications that theories proposed by population geneticists are rapidly falling out of favor as the theories are replaced with facts about biologically based cause and effect.

Personally, I think my posts tend to scare some researchers who had hoped they could continue to tout their belief in the theory they were taught to believe in, as if experimental evidence in the context of biology developments had ever supported it.

I’m linking to some of the information in the posts just to show how quiet the group is. Like other groups, there seems to be no participants willing to discuss new research results, like these:

Conserved microRNA editing in mammalian evolution, development and disease

Excerpt: “…site-specific miRNA editing is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism, which increases the functional diversity of mammalian miRNA transcriptomes.”

Excerpt 2): “…miRNA editing is an integral and evolutionarily stable feature of mammalian transcriptomes.”

My comment: It’s time for social scientists and serious scientists alike to admit that site-specific miRNA editing is nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled. Biological facts continue to refute the pseudoscientific nonsense of mutation-initiated natural selection and evolved biodiversity.

From Kohl (2013) “In flies, ecological and social niche construction can be linked to molecular-level cause and effect at the cellular and organismal levels via nutrient-dependent changes in mitochondrial tRNA and a nuclear-encoded tRNA synthetase. The enzyme enables attachment of an appropriate amino acid…”

Diet in mammals is complex

Journal article excerpt: “…continuing to work instead with untested dietary classifications would generate unstandardized results and thereby prevent synergy between intellectually overlapping ecological and palaeoecological research programmes.”

My comment: “Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems” is the requested but rejected review of nutritional epigenetics that refutes neo-Darwinian theories and links the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction to the synergy that is required to integrate intellectually overlapping ecological and palaeoecological research programmes.

Those who examine only nutrition or only reproduction may never realize that ecological variation and nutrient-dependent amino acid substitutions enable the pheromone-controlled physiology of species-specific reproduction, which is manifested in the morphological and behavioral phenotypes of species from microbes to man. Many social scientists, for example, still think in terms of mutation-initiated natural selection instead of natural selection for nutrients. That explains why social scientists believe in biologically implausible theories that were invented by population geneticists. They missed Darwin’s cautions about ‘conditions of life’ that must be considered before thoughts about natural selection are given a higher priority than what an organism finds to eat, and how reproduction is controlled.

Multiple evidence strands suggest that there may be as few as 19 000 human protein-coding genes.

Excerpt: “There are genes that do not fit into the conventional coding/non-coding narrative in the non-coding set. Several genes are annotated as potentially non-functional but may actually be functional under certain conditions.” My comment: If nutrient-stress and social stress did not cause non-functional genes to become functional, ecological variation could not result in ecological adaptations via nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled amino acid substitutions that are the epigenetically effected determinants of cell type differentiation in all individuals of all species.

Evolution of life’s operating system revealed in detail

My comment:  There appears to be no mention of the biophysical constraints that prevent perturbed protein folding from resulting in the evolution of biodiversity. However, it also appears that my atoms to ecosystems model of how ecological variation results in ecological adaptations via conserved molecular mechanisms in species from microbes to man also is ignored.

Thus, we have yet another representation of how something is somehow linked to evolution without mention of what’s knowns about physics, chemistry, or molecular biology.Evolution — at the atomic level of resolution — just happens.

Read more

Conserved microRNA editing

July 8, 2014 | James Kohl

Conserved microRNA editing in mammalian evolution, development and disease

Excerpt:  “…site-specific miRNA editing is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism, which increases the functional diversity of mammalian miRNA transcriptomes.”

Excerpt 2): “…miRNA editing is an integral and evolutionarily stable feature of mammalian transcriptomes.”

My comment: It’s time for social scientists and serious scientists alike to admit that site-specific miRNA editing is nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled. Biological facts continue to refute the pseudoscientific nonsense of mutation-initiated natural selection and evolved biodiversity.

See also: Healthy people carry disease-causing mitochondrial DNA mutations.

Excerpt: “… pathogenic mtDNA mutations are usually present at low frequency and buffered by healthy mtDNA, preventing the action of natural selection.

My comment: Few people are willing to publicly admit that ecological variation results in ecological adaptations via conserved molecular mechanisms in species from microbes to man. However, removing the theory of mutation-initiated natural selection from any further consideration will help move science forward in the context of cell type differentiation via amino acid substitutions.

For example (from Kohl, 2013) : “In flies, ecological and social niche construction can be linked to molecular-level cause and effect at the cellular and organismal levels via nutrient-dependent changes in mitochondrial tRNA and a nuclear-encoded tRNA synthetase. The enzyme enables attachment of an appropriate amino acid, which facilitates the reaction required for efficient and accurate protein synthesis (Meiklejohn et al., 2013).”

Ecological variation is manifested in ecological adaptations via amino acid substitutions that differentiate cell types in all individuals of all species. Thus, the only stable feature of mammalian transcriptomes arises in the context of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations, and not in the context of mutation-initiated natural selection.

Read more
Page 4 of 210« First...23456...102030...Last »