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Human Pheromones Affect Women's Behavior

Posted on April 27, 2011 by jim.

Association for Chemoreception Sciences 2011

Human Pheromones, Epigenetics, Physiology, and the Development of Animal Behavior

In eusocial insects like the honeybee, diet and pheromones are epigenetic determinants of virtually all aspects of each organism’s existence. The honeybee serves as a model organism for studying human immunity, disease resistance, allergic reactions, circadian rhythms, antibiotic resistance, development, mental health, longevity, and diseases of the X chromosome. Included among these different aspects of eusocial species survival are learning and memory as well as conditioned responses to sensory stimuli. Mammalian conditioning paradigms suggest that androstenol experientially conditions hormonal effects in females, which may be unconsciously associated with behavioral affects of androsterone in women. Androsterone smells like fresh sweat. It is an individual human male-specific and somewhat primate-specific component of axillary secretions that also contain androstenol, which influences levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and mood in women. LH is a measure of diet-dependent sexual maturity and fertility, which is influenced by mammalian pheromones. We evaluated individual video-taped fifteen-minute interactions of fourteen women with ovulatory phase levels of LH during a cooperative task. During the task, our male accomplice wore either a standardized androstenol / androsterone mixture diluted in propylene glycol, or just the diluent — with sandalwood odor added to keep him blind to his condition. When he was wearing the mixture compared to when he wore the diluent, women were more likely to make eye contact with him (t(12) = 3.43, p = .01; IRR: r = .964, p = .01). They also laughed more during the interaction (t(12) = 5.20, p <.01; IRR: r = .810, p = .01) and they rated themselves as being more attracted to him (t(12) = 2.786, p = .016). Our results combine the known effects of androstenol on LH and on mood in women with behavioral affects we attribute to androsterone. They also extend to human females the eusocial insect model for epigenetic effects of diet and pheromones on hormone-mediated gene expression during behavioral development. Our disclosed mixture better characterizes species-specific human pheromones; their life-long effect on physiology, and their affect on behavior with no need to change the 1959 definition of pheromones or to alter the concept of human pheromones first detailed in 1995. Epigenetic effects help to dispel the psychological construct that the pheromones of any species from insects to mammals uniquely determine genetically predisposed social context-dependent endocrine responses or behavior in an invariant way.



Retired medical laboratory scientist

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James Kohl owns, and he has published books and award-winning research journal articles about human pheromones. With colleagues he was the first to show that a mixture of human pheromones increases the flirtatious behaviors of women, and increases their level of attraction to the man wearing the mixture - during a real-life social circumstance lasting 15 minutes.

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What is the vomeronasal organ (VNO)?

The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a cone-shaped organ in the nasal cavity, which is believed to be one of the body's receptors of pheromones. More, specifically, the VNO, which is part of the accessory olfactory system in the nose, does not respond to normal scents, but may detect odorless, barely perceptible pheromones.

Other schools of thought believe that it is not the VNO but rather cells in our main olfactory system and their affects on hormones secreted by the hypothalamus that are responsible for the affects of pheromones.

Learn more about the science behind pheromones here.

What are optimized pheromones?

Optimized pheromones are lab-certified pheromone formulations that have the optimum concentration of biologically active pheromones scientifically proven to produce behavior-altering results -- particularly as sexual attractants. Optimized pheromone formulations do not necessarily contain the maximum level of pheromones available on the market, but rather contain the greatest degree (and combination)of human pheromones that trigger a conditioned biological response in humans that, in turn, dictate their sexual behavior. Optimized pheromones also release neurotransmitters that directly modify the behavior of the opposite sex, such as triggering sexual excitement. For example:

Optimized pheromones for men are scientifically proven to bring about an increase in the luteinizing hormone (LH) in women, thereby causing a woman to have a heightened sexual responsiveness to a man. This LH surge elevates a woman's predisposition towards sexual activity.

Optimized pheromones for women are scientifically proven to bring about a biochemical surge in men, thereby causing a man to have a heightened sexual responsiveness to a woman. This biochemical surge is what makes a man fiercely determined to copulate.