Human pheromones, the social brain and simple math computations
Posted on August 8, 2012 by James Kohl.
Simple mathematical computations underlie brain circuits August 8, 2012 by Anne Trafton in Neuroscience
Excerpt: “There is growing evidence that alterations in excitation and inhibition are at the core of many subsets of neuropsychiatric disorders,” says Sur, who is also the director of the Simons Center for the Social Brain at MIT. “It makes sense, because these are not disorders in the fundamental way in which the brain is built. They’re subtle disorders in brain circuitry and they affect very specific brain systems, such as the social brain.”
Integrating the chemical ecology of the social brain’s adaptive evolution allows it to be viewed – along with adaptive evolution of the CNS – at four levels of niche construction: 1) ecological, 2) social, 3) neurogenic, and 4) socio-cognitive. From this view olfaction and odor receptors provide a clear evolutionary trail that can be followed from unicellular organisms to insects to humans, because all organisms require nutrient chemicals and their reproduction is controlled by pheromones.
In people, nutrient chemicals and pheromones alter neuronal excitation and inhibition in nerve cells that secrete gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), which links odors to the biological core of many subsets of neuropsychiatric disorders. Olfactory/pheromonal input causes subtle alterations in hypothalamic GnRH pulse frequency, which has downstream effects on most, if not all, other neuronal systems that are indirectly linked to neuropsychiatric disorders. For example, noradrenergic, dopaminergic, serotoninergic, and opiotergic pathways; inhibitory neurotransmitters (e.g., gammaaminobutyric acid) and excitatory amino acids (e.g., glutamic and aspartic acids); and other brain peptides including pineal secretions (melatonin) and corticotropinreleasing hormone, and the complex interactions among them are subtle but functional species-specific influences on the electrochemical transmission of neuronal signals that the hypothalamus translates to the chemical signal GnRH (Grumbach & Styne, 1992, p. 1164).
The hypothalamic GnRH pulse is altered by excitation and inhibition due to the epigenetic effects of olfactory/pheromonal input on intracellular signaling and stochastic gene expression. Food odors and mammalian pheromones alter early gene expression in GnRH-secreting nerve cells of the hypothalamus, and the expression of early genes is a marker of neuronal activation. With olfactory/pheromonal input, however, the neuronal activation is linked directly from the sensory environment to effects on hormones that affect behavior. The affects on behavior come from the ability of the epigenetically effected hormones to alter excitation and inhibition – at the core of neuropsychiatric disorders: hypothalamic GnRH pulsatility.
Grumbach, M. M., & Styne, D. M. (1992). Puberty: ontogeny, neuroendocrinology, physiology, and disorders. In J. D. Wilson & D. W. Foster (Eds.), Williams Textbook of Endocrinology (Vol. 8th ed, pp. 1139-1221). Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co.
Retired medical laboratory scientist
Try Our Potent Pheromones Risk Free!
Backed by Scientific Research AND
a 100% Money Back Guarantee!
With our no hassle 60 day money back guarantee you have nothing to lose.Read Our Risk Free Guarantee to you!
Order by Mail or FAX
Trademarks & Notices: LuvEssentials is not affiliated in any way with WebMD, CNN, Discovery Health. All trademarks and registered trademarks appearing on LuvEssentials are the property of their respective owners.
Orders that were shipped by free USPS Mail and are returned to us will be assessed a return processing fee of $7.00 US Dollars. Orders totaling over $190.00 US Dollars, before any discount, that are returned to us will be assessed a return processing fee of 25%.
Please note, the testimonials we display are all real; however, any photos accompanying these testimonials are stock photography, not actual customers. We do this to protect the privacy of our customers.
Also, in accordance with FTC guidelines, we want to make it explicitly clear that the testimonials we display throughout this website are based on the unique experiences that some of our customers have shared with us. We cannot promise that you will experience similar benefits from using our product. If you are not satisfied with our product for any reason, simply return the product within 60 days for a full refund excluding the costs of shipping and handling. Please contact us with any questions you may have.