Business Verified eBay Store Seal Watch Video Watch Video

Increased chemosensory ability and eye regression: a “Just-So” fish story

Posted on December 31, 2012 by James Kohl.

Evolution of an adaptive behavior and its sensory receptors promotes eye regression in blind cavefish  Yoshizawa M, Yamamoto Y, O’Quin KE, Jeffery WR  BMC Biology 2012, 10:108 (27 December 2012) [Provisional PDF]

Excerpt: “…loss of eyes as a result of selection for increased tactile sensitivity is an attractive general hypothesis for the convergent evolution of eye regression in cave fauna.”

My comment: The authors start with eye regression and increased chemosensory abilities required for foraging in the dark / nutrient poor environment of the cave fish. They later suggest that the same quantitative trait loci (QTL) clusters, which are involved in eye regression and increased chemosensory abilities are the clusters that control groups of potentially advantageous traits during the rapid evolution and species diversification of African cichlids (with eyes) and three-spined sticklebacks (with eyes). In the species with eyes, the QTL clusters somehow came to be involved in  sex determination, body color, and body shape. But in the species with eyes that regressed increased tactile sensitivity evolves for nutrient chemical acquisition and mate choice.

Does that make sense? Loss of eyes associated with increased chemosensory abilities leads to a hypothesis  of increased tactile sensitivity for food choice and mate choice.  However, adaptive evolution of eyes that enable sexual reproduction associated with visual input has nothing to do with either tactile or chemosensory ability.

Here’s the problem I have with their hypothesis. The blind Astyanax cave fish and the sighted Astyanax surface fish produce viable offspring because they are the same species. In my model, species-specific pheromones control nutrient chemical-dependent reproduction. Visual, auditory, and tactile stimuli do not control nutrient chemical-dependent reproduction in any species.

Moving across an evolutionary continuum of eye development and/or regression while explaining that eye regression in cave fish is due to increased tactile sensitivity but normal eye development in other fish is required for visual perceived physical features important to sexual reproduction is confusing. It is also amazing because there is no mention of the role of olfaction or pheromones that enable the response to food and potential mates in every other species on the planet, whether or not the species has eyes that evolved, or first evolved and then regressed.

 

Comments

comments

James Kohl
Retired medical laboratory scientist

James Kohl




Order by Mail or FAX

Order by Mail or Fax

If you prefer to place your pheromones order by MAIL or FAX, using our printable order form, click here.

Trademarks & Notices: LuvEssentials is not affiliated in any way with WebMD, CNN, Discovery Health. All trademarks and registered trademarks appearing on LuvEssentials are the property of their respective owners.

Orders that were shipped by free USPS Mail and are returned to us will be assessed a return processing fee of $7.00 US Dollars. Orders totaling over $190.00 US Dollars, before any discount, that are returned to us will be assessed a return processing fee of 25%.

Please note, the testimonials we display are all real; however, any photos accompanying these testimonials are stock photography, not actual customers. We do this to protect the privacy of our customers.

Also, in accordance with FTC guidelines, we want to make it explicitly clear that the testimonials we display throughout this website are based on the unique experiences that some of our customers have shared with us. We cannot promise that you will experience similar benefits from using our product. If you are not satisfied with our product for any reason, simply return the product within 60 days for a full refund excluding the costs of shipping and handling. Please contact us with any questions you may have.

James Kohl owns Pheromones.com, and he has published books and award-winning research journal articles about human pheromones. With colleagues he was the first to show that a mixture of human pheromones increases the flirtatious behaviors of women, and increases their level of attraction to the man wearing the mixture - during a real-life social circumstance lasting 15 minutes.

James Kohl was not paid for his endorsement. Nevertheless, he is an affiliate of LuvEssentials.com which means it is possible for him to receive a monetary gain from the sale of LuvEssentials products based on how the visitor arrived at our site.

For testimonials of LuvEssentials products, please visit our testimonials page here or our ebay reviews page here.

To contact us, please click here

Contact Us

Please complete the following form to contact us; we will reply within one business day.
Business days are Monday through Friday, 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM, EST
The information you are providing here will not be sold or disclosed to any outside party.
(* indicates required fields)

Please contact us by:

Phone:
800.611.3578

Email:
support@luvessentials.com

Mail:
Lodix Corporation
138 Palm Coast Parkway N.E.
Suite 192
Palm Coast, FL 32137


What is the vomeronasal organ (VNO)?

The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a cone-shaped organ in the nasal cavity, which is believed to be one of the body's receptors of pheromones. More, specifically, the VNO, which is part of the accessory olfactory system in the nose, does not respond to normal scents, but may detect odorless, barely perceptible pheromones.

Other schools of thought believe that it is not the VNO but rather cells in our main olfactory system and their affects on hormones secreted by the hypothalamus that are responsible for the affects of pheromones.

Learn more about the science behind pheromones here.

What are optimized pheromones?

Optimized pheromones are lab-certified pheromone formulations that have the optimum concentration of biologically active pheromones scientifically proven to produce behavior-altering results -- particularly as sexual attractants. Optimized pheromone formulations do not necessarily contain the maximum level of pheromones available on the market, but rather contain the greatest degree (and combination)of human pheromones that trigger a conditioned biological response in humans that, in turn, dictate their sexual behavior. Optimized pheromones also release neurotransmitters that directly modify the behavior of the opposite sex, such as triggering sexual excitement. For example:

Optimized pheromones for men are scientifically proven to bring about an increase in the luteinizing hormone (LH) in women, thereby causing a woman to have a heightened sexual responsiveness to a man. This LH surge elevates a woman's predisposition towards sexual activity.

Optimized pheromones for women are scientifically proven to bring about a biochemical surge in men, thereby causing a man to have a heightened sexual responsiveness to a woman. This biochemical surge is what makes a man fiercely determined to copulate.