Excerpt from: Genetic Variation of an Odorant Receptor OR7D4 and Sensory Perception of Cooked Meat Containing Androstenone
“It is tempting to speculate that certain ORs or variants of ORs influence dietary selection. These ORs might be selected during human evolution based on the available food source in a given habitat.” (Lunde et al., 2012)
I addressed this speculation with my model of nutrient chemical calibration of individual survival where the nutrient chemicals are metabolized to pheromones that standardize and control reproduction and species survival (Kohl, 2012).
This is what occurs in species from microbes to man, but it is best detailed using the honeybee model organism and what is currently known about the molecular biology, which allows the epigenetic effects of nutrient chemicals and pheromones to be the primary determining factors for species survival (i.e., not random mutations).
As suggested by these authors in the quote above, nutrient chemicals establish the ecological niches, which establish the social niches. In vertebrates the social niches are linked by pheromones to neurogenic niches in the hypothalamus that alter luteinizing hormone, olfactory bulb neurogenesis and hippocampal neurogenesis, learning and memory.
Of course, because I’ve dismissed evolutionary theory that involves random mutations, and used the epigenetic effects of olfactory/pheromonal input on OR variants, which provide a clear evolutionary trail that can be followed from unicellular organisms to insects to humans, my work has been largely ignored. So, it is great to see others speculate about what I have modeled across species from microbes to man. Perhaps now evolutionary theorists, philosophers, and theologians can compare alternative comprehensive models of individual and species survival based on what’s known about current molecular biology.
References (all open access publications)
(Kohl, 2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338. http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/snp.v2i0.17338
See also: (Jones et al., 2012) The genomic basis of adaptive evolution in threespine sticklebacks. Nature, 484, 7392:55-61
Jones, F. C., Grabherr, M. G., Chan, Y. F., Russell, P., Mauceli, E., Johnson, J., et al. (2012). The genomic basis of adaptive evolution in threespine sticklebacks. Nature, 484(7392), 55-61.
Kohl, J. V. (2012). Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2, 17338 – DOI: 17310.13402/snp.v17332i17330.17338.
Lunde, K., Egelandsdal, B. r., Skuterud, E., Mainland, J. D., Lea, T., Hersleth, M., et al. (2012). Genetic Variation of an Odorant Receptor OR7D4 and Sensory Perception of Cooked Meat Containing Androstenone. PLoS ONE, 7(5), e35259.