Business Verified eBay Store Seal Watch Video Watch Video

Natural selection and sexual selection for thermoregulation

Posted on February 19, 2013 by James Kohl.

Variety is the spice of life, but diversity is controlled by natural selection and sexual selection for thermoregulation

Article Excerpt: “As systems-level research, which integrates multiple types and levels of biological information, becomes more necessary to understand complex diseases, there is an urgent need to find principles that extend across all models…”

East Asian Physical Traits Linked to 35,000-Year-Old Mutation

Article Excerpt: “Dr. Sabeti said the extra sweat glands could have been the feature favored by natural selection, with all the other effects being dragged along in its train.”

My comment: Reproduction is nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled in species from microbes to man. That suggests the molecular mechanisms are the same. Thus, after a thorough review of the extant literature, we can readily conclude that “Olfaction and odor receptors provide a clear evolutionary trail that can be followed from unicellular organisms to insects to humans (Kohl, 2012).”

That fact is demonstrable. Substitution of alanine for valine in a human population results in alterations of skin, sweat, and hair (Grossman et al., 2013). The hypothesis supported is that the enhanced thermoregulation required for evolution at the molecular level fuels adaptive mitochodrial-nuclear interactions (Brunstein, 2013; Meiklejohn et al., 2013). This includes the mitochodrial-nuclear interactions of the microbiome (McFall-Ngai et al., 2013). The intranuclear interactions are manifested in phenotypical changes that enable sexual selection for nutrient-dependent reproductive fitness.

Adaptively evolved reproductive fitness is signaled by pheromones via the alterations in skin, eccrine sweat, apocrine secretions[1], and hair in mammals. The microbiome is largely responsible for digestion and for conversion of nutrient metabolites to pheromones.  The problem for some people is the complexity of the systems biology. There is a requirement to get from nutrient fueled energy driven protein synthesis in cells to ecological, social, neurogenic, and socio-cognitive niche construction (Kohl, 2013). That requirement exists to link the sensory environment to protein synthesis via changes in gene expression. The changes in gene expression lead to changes in behavior. The changes in behavior must lead back to changes in gene expression via reproduction for adaptive evolution to occur.

If not for animal models of that complexity, all hope for understanding would be lost. The honeybee model organism incorporates what is known about nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled social behavior. The mouse model extends what is known to sexual selection in mammals.  The physics of thermoregulated DNA strand pairing extends common molecular mechanisms from microbes to man (Brunstein, 2013).

Extending the concept of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction from microbes to humans may not be possible in the current climate of animal model specializations and what are believed to be mutations that somehow cause adaptive evolution. In Drosophila, for example, an experimentally induced valine-alanine point “mutation” reduces fecundity as is consistent with starvation. But “fixation” of the mutation is used to explain adaptive evolution (Meiklejohn et al., 2013). Drosophila is a commonly used animal model of diversity. Note the sharp contrast of  “mutations” theory  compared to nutrient-dependent thermoregulatory mechanisms that clearly are pheromone-controlled in microbes (McFall-Ngai et al., 2013).

In my opinion, adaptive mutations theory should not be used as a substitute for explanations of the epigenetic effects of nutrients and pheromones on thermoregulated epigenesis, epistasis, and adaptive evolution. Instead, differences in perspectives on the valine / alanine variants (Kamberov et al., 2013; Meiklejohn et al., 2013) should be compared to determine if or how “adaptive mutations” enable nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled species diversity. What if all adaptations are nutrient-driven and pheromone-controlled as is consistent with a model of adaptive evolution (Kohl, 2013)?

Let’s first get the physics and the biology correct, before we mathematically model what may be impossible. Is it possible that mutations are adaptive at the level of population genetics? If there is a model for that, the first priority is to get the model right.

References:

Brunstein, J. (2013). DNA and RNA structure: nucleic acids as genetic material. Medical Laboratory Observer, January 26(22). Jan 2013 http://www.mlo-online.com/articles/201301/dna-and-rna-structure-nucleic-acids-as-genetic-material.php

Grossman, Sharon R., Andersen, Kristian G., Shlyakhter, I., Tabrizi, S., Winnicki, S., Yen, A., et al. (2013). Identifying Recent Adaptations in Large-Scale Genomic Data. Cell, 152(4), 703-713. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0092867413000871 (see link to video on adaptive mutations that result in more sweat glands)

Kamberov, Yana G., Wang, S., Tan, J., Gerbault, P., Wark, A., Tan, L., et al. (2013). Modeling Recent Human Evolution in Mice by Expression of a Selected EDAR Variant. Cell, 152(4), 691-702. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0092867413000676

Kohl, J. V. (2012). Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2(17338). http://www.socioaffectiveneuroscipsychol.net/index.php/snp/article/view/17338

Kohl, J. V. (2013). Nutrient-dependent / Pheromone-controlled Adaptive Evolution. figshare, Retrieved 04:36, Feb 18, 2013 (GMT)http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.155672

McFall-Ngai, M., Hadfield, M. G., Bosch, T. C. G., Carey, H. V., Domazet-Loso, T., Douglas, A. E., et al. (2013). Animals in a bacterial world, a new imperative for the life sciences. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/02/06/1218525110.abstract

Meiklejohn, C. D., Holmbeck, M. A., Siddiq, M. A., Abt, D. N., Rand, D. M., & Montooth, K. L. (2013). An Incompatibility between a Mitochondrial tRNA and Its Nuclear-Encoded tRNA Synthetase Compromises Development and Fitness in Drosophila. PLoS Genet, 9(1), e1003238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371%2Fjournal.pgen.1003238

Comments

comments

James Kohl
Retired medical laboratory scientist

James Kohl




Order by Mail or FAX

Order by Mail or Fax

If you prefer to place your pheromones order by MAIL or FAX, using our printable order form, click here.

Trademarks & Notices: LuvEssentials is not affiliated in any way with WebMD, CNN, Discovery Health. All trademarks and registered trademarks appearing on LuvEssentials are the property of their respective owners.

Orders that were shipped by free USPS Mail and are returned to us will be assessed a return processing fee of $7.00 US Dollars. Orders totaling over $190.00 US Dollars, before any discount, that are returned to us will be assessed a return processing fee of 25%.

Please note, the testimonials we display are all real; however, any photos accompanying these testimonials are stock photography, not actual customers. We do this to protect the privacy of our customers.

Also, in accordance with FTC guidelines, we want to make it explicitly clear that the testimonials we display throughout this website are based on the unique experiences that some of our customers have shared with us. We cannot promise that you will experience similar benefits from using our product. If you are not satisfied with our product for any reason, simply return the product within 60 days for a full refund excluding the costs of shipping and handling. Please contact us with any questions you may have.

James Kohl owns Pheromones.com, and he has published books and award-winning research journal articles about human pheromones. With colleagues he was the first to show that a mixture of human pheromones increases the flirtatious behaviors of women, and increases their level of attraction to the man wearing the mixture - during a real-life social circumstance lasting 15 minutes.

James Kohl was not paid for his endorsement. Nevertheless, he is an affiliate of LuvEssentials.com which means it is possible for him to receive a monetary gain from the sale of LuvEssentials products based on how the visitor arrived at our site.

For testimonials of LuvEssentials products, please visit our testimonials page here or our ebay reviews page here.

To contact us, please click here

Contact Us

Please complete the following form to contact us; we will reply within one business day.
Business days are Monday through Friday, 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM, EST
The information you are providing here will not be sold or disclosed to any outside party.
(* indicates required fields)

Please contact us by:

Phone:
800.611.3578

Email:
support@luvessentials.com

Mail:
Lodix Corporation
138 Palm Coast Parkway N.E.
Suite 192
Palm Coast, FL 32137


What is the vomeronasal organ (VNO)?

The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a cone-shaped organ in the nasal cavity, which is believed to be one of the body's receptors of pheromones. More, specifically, the VNO, which is part of the accessory olfactory system in the nose, does not respond to normal scents, but may detect odorless, barely perceptible pheromones.

Other schools of thought believe that it is not the VNO but rather cells in our main olfactory system and their affects on hormones secreted by the hypothalamus that are responsible for the affects of pheromones.

Learn more about the science behind pheromones here.

What are optimized pheromones?

Optimized pheromones are lab-certified pheromone formulations that have the optimum concentration of biologically active pheromones scientifically proven to produce behavior-altering results -- particularly as sexual attractants. Optimized pheromone formulations do not necessarily contain the maximum level of pheromones available on the market, but rather contain the greatest degree (and combination)of human pheromones that trigger a conditioned biological response in humans that, in turn, dictate their sexual behavior. Optimized pheromones also release neurotransmitters that directly modify the behavior of the opposite sex, such as triggering sexual excitement. For example:

Optimized pheromones for men are scientifically proven to bring about an increase in the luteinizing hormone (LH) in women, thereby causing a woman to have a heightened sexual responsiveness to a man. This LH surge elevates a woman's predisposition towards sexual activity.

Optimized pheromones for women are scientifically proven to bring about a biochemical surge in men, thereby causing a man to have a heightened sexual responsiveness to a woman. This biochemical surge is what makes a man fiercely determined to copulate.