Business Verified eBay Store Seal Watch Video Watch Video

Social decision-making in vertebrates (Part 1)

Posted on June 1, 2012 by James Kohl.

Science 1 June 2012:
Vol. 336 no. 6085 pp. 1154-1157
DOI:10.1126/science.1218889

Report

Evolution of a Vertebrate Social Decision-Making Network

Lauren A. O’Connell, Hans A. Hofmann | 2 Comments

Across vertebrates, behaviorally relevant brain regions are remarkably conserved over 450 million years of evolution.

——————————————————————————————————–

My comment:

Simply put, the nutrients that organisms eat are metabolized to the pheromones they produce, which control social decision-making in all species. This article (linked above) is concise and somewhat parallels what I published as a 57-page journal article in the Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality, and as a book chapter in the Handbook of the Evolution of Human Sexuality.

Excerpt (not simply put): “The overall influence of mammalian olfactory/pheromonal input on hypothalamic GnRH release and on LH release from the pituitary represent a highly conserved effector system that includes genes that code for the peptide ligand (i.e., GnRH) and the cell-surface receptor: the GnRH receptor (GnRHR).  The result of this genetic conservation of GnRH and its receptor is the physiological regulation of sexual reproduction across species.  The transition from asexual to sexual reproduction involves two organisms that incorporate the equally well-conserved GnRH-directed, GnRHR-enabled neuroendocrine system signaling mechanism and the MHC/HLA-directed immune system signaling mechanism.  These signaling mechanisms are involved in the chemical discrimination of self from non-self, genetic diversification, and the neuroendocrine response to non-self chemical signals, like olfactory/pheromonal input from the social environment.”

Clearly, it is the GnRH neuronal system that is the evolved vertebrate social decision-making network.

How could the cause of our social decision-making not be the adaptive evolution from yeasts of the ligand-receptor binding exemplified across species by the conservation of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and diversification of its receptor (GnRHR) as detailed in Kohl (2006/7)? Model organisms like the threespine stickleback make clear the involvement of ecological niche construction. The honeybee is the invertebrate model organism that makes clear the involvement of the nutrient dependent ecological niche in construction of the pheromone-dependent social niche. Invertebrate and vertebrate models collectively attest to the common molecular biology of adaptively evolved social decision-making networks.

In mammals, the hypothalamic neurogenic niche (e.g., probably located in the medial preoptic area) responds to nutrients to enable fertility and responds to pheromones that enable sexual reproduction, which has adaptively evolved from its origins in brewer’s yeast. Never before has there been such a clear representation of cause and effect across species from microbes to man, where nutrient chemicals calibrate the intracellular signaling and their metabolism to pheromones standardizes and controls the stochastic gene expression required for reproduction.

Gene expression enables adaptive evolution of the brain and ensures that our ability to acquire nutrient chemicals is the first priority for reproduction via appropriate social behaviors, as it is in every species. For example, microbes eat the DNA of heterospecifics but not conspecifics, which indicate more social sense than what some people today are capable of recognizing in the design of biology (e.g., the evolved gene, cell, tissue, organ, organ system pathway that directly links sensory input to the mammalian neuroendocrine system and the hormones responsible for our behavior, which activates the same ‘organized’ pathway). The reciprocity of organization and activation is required for adaptive evolution that is driven by nutrient chemicals and pheromones.

Comments

comments

James Kohl
Retired medical laboratory scientist

James Kohl




Order by Mail or FAX

Order by Mail or Fax

If you prefer to place your pheromones order by MAIL or FAX, using our printable order form, click here.

Trademarks & Notices: LuvEssentials is not affiliated in any way with WebMD, CNN, Discovery Health. All trademarks and registered trademarks appearing on LuvEssentials are the property of their respective owners.

Orders that were shipped by free USPS Mail and are returned to us will be assessed a return processing fee of $7.00 US Dollars. Orders totaling over $190.00 US Dollars, before any discount, that are returned to us will be assessed a return processing fee of 25%.

Please note, the testimonials we display are all real; however, any photos accompanying these testimonials are stock photography, not actual customers. We do this to protect the privacy of our customers.

Also, in accordance with FTC guidelines, we want to make it explicitly clear that the testimonials we display throughout this website are based on the unique experiences that some of our customers have shared with us. We cannot promise that you will experience similar benefits from using our product. If you are not satisfied with our product for any reason, simply return the product within 60 days for a full refund excluding the costs of shipping and handling. Please contact us with any questions you may have.

James Kohl owns Pheromones.com, and he has published books and award-winning research journal articles about human pheromones. With colleagues he was the first to show that a mixture of human pheromones increases the flirtatious behaviors of women, and increases their level of attraction to the man wearing the mixture - during a real-life social circumstance lasting 15 minutes.

James Kohl was not paid for his endorsement. Nevertheless, he is an affiliate of LuvEssentials.com which means it is possible for him to receive a monetary gain from the sale of LuvEssentials products based on how the visitor arrived at our site.

For testimonials of LuvEssentials products, please visit our testimonials page here or our ebay reviews page here.

To contact us, please click here

Contact Us

Please complete the following form to contact us; we will reply within one business day.
Business days are Monday through Friday, 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM, EST
The information you are providing here will not be sold or disclosed to any outside party.
(* indicates required fields)

Please contact us by:

Phone:
800.611.3578

Email:
support@luvessentials.com

Mail:
Lodix Corporation
138 Palm Coast Parkway N.E.
Suite 192
Palm Coast, FL 32137


What is the vomeronasal organ (VNO)?

The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a cone-shaped organ in the nasal cavity, which is believed to be one of the body's receptors of pheromones. More, specifically, the VNO, which is part of the accessory olfactory system in the nose, does not respond to normal scents, but may detect odorless, barely perceptible pheromones.

Other schools of thought believe that it is not the VNO but rather cells in our main olfactory system and their affects on hormones secreted by the hypothalamus that are responsible for the affects of pheromones.

Learn more about the science behind pheromones here.

What are optimized pheromones?

Optimized pheromones are lab-certified pheromone formulations that have the optimum concentration of biologically active pheromones scientifically proven to produce behavior-altering results -- particularly as sexual attractants. Optimized pheromone formulations do not necessarily contain the maximum level of pheromones available on the market, but rather contain the greatest degree (and combination)of human pheromones that trigger a conditioned biological response in humans that, in turn, dictate their sexual behavior. Optimized pheromones also release neurotransmitters that directly modify the behavior of the opposite sex, such as triggering sexual excitement. For example:

Optimized pheromones for men are scientifically proven to bring about an increase in the luteinizing hormone (LH) in women, thereby causing a woman to have a heightened sexual responsiveness to a man. This LH surge elevates a woman's predisposition towards sexual activity.

Optimized pheromones for women are scientifically proven to bring about a biochemical surge in men, thereby causing a man to have a heightened sexual responsiveness to a woman. This biochemical surge is what makes a man fiercely determined to copulate.