Business Verified eBay Store Seal Watch Video Watch Video

The role of food in the evolution of maternal and paternal care in avian species

Posted on August 2, 2012 by James Kohl.

Mixed paternity despite high male parental care in great tinamous and other Palaeognathes   Original Research Article  Animal Behaviour, Available online 20 July 2012
Patricia L.R. Brennan

My comment:

The evolution of maternal care and paternal care in mammals is dependent on receptor-mediated events that are directly linked from olfactory/pheromonal input to epigenetic effects on intracellular signaling and stochastic gene expression. Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance is one means to ensure that beneficial behavioral traits show up in offspring that mature to provide care for their offspring.

Beneficial behavioral traits enable species survival. Is there a model for how transgenerational epigenetic inheritance enables avian species survival that details the contribution of auditory or visual input — one that does not first require classically conditioned responses to chemical stimuli, for example, like those in food odors?  If not, the early ethologists might have missed something else that’s as important as pheromones are to the theory of biological evolution in species from microbes to man: food.

Is there a model for food acquisition that does not involve olfactory input and classically conditioned behavior (e.g., receptor-mediated hormone-driven behavior)? If so, the same model might be used to link maternal and paternal care to avian species survival. If not, why isn’t there a model for that?

What did the early ethologists think was responsible for nutrient acquisition in surviving avian species? Is there a textbook I can read about that and compare what it says to the Nobel Prize winning works of olfactory researchers like Richard Axel and Linda Buck (2004)? I’m becoming concerned for some of today’s ethologists (and most of the remaining behaviorists). What kind of stories about adaptive evolution have they been taught to believe? Why was there no emphasis on food? It makes me hungry just to think of it. What did they think the birds were thinking about; maternal and paternal care?



James Kohl
Retired medical laboratory scientist

James Kohl

Order by Mail or FAX

Order by Mail or Fax

If you prefer to place your pheromones order by MAIL or FAX, using our printable order form, click here.

Trademarks & Notices: LuvEssentials is not affiliated in any way with WebMD, CNN, Discovery Health. All trademarks and registered trademarks appearing on LuvEssentials are the property of their respective owners.

Orders that were shipped by free USPS Mail and are returned to us will be assessed a return processing fee of $7.00 US Dollars. Orders totaling over $190.00 US Dollars, before any discount, that are returned to us will be assessed a return processing fee of 25%.

Please note, the testimonials we display are all real; however, any photos accompanying these testimonials are stock photography, not actual customers. We do this to protect the privacy of our customers.

Also, in accordance with FTC guidelines, we want to make it explicitly clear that the testimonials we display throughout this website are based on the unique experiences that some of our customers have shared with us. We cannot promise that you will experience similar benefits from using our product. If you are not satisfied with our product for any reason, simply return the product within 60 days for a full refund excluding the costs of shipping and handling. Please contact us with any questions you may have.

James Kohl owns, and he has published books and award-winning research journal articles about human pheromones. With colleagues he was the first to show that a mixture of human pheromones increases the flirtatious behaviors of women, and increases their level of attraction to the man wearing the mixture - during a real-life social circumstance lasting 15 minutes.

James Kohl was not paid for his endorsement. Nevertheless, he is an affiliate of which means it is possible for him to receive a monetary gain from the sale of LuvEssentials products based on how the visitor arrived at our site.

For testimonials of LuvEssentials products, please visit our testimonials page here or our ebay reviews page here.

To contact us, please click here

Contact Us

Please complete the following form to contact us; we will reply within one business day.
Business days are Monday through Friday, 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM, EST
The information you are providing here will not be sold or disclosed to any outside party.
(* indicates required fields)

Please contact us by:



Lodix Corporation
138 Palm Coast Parkway N.E.
Suite 192
Palm Coast, FL 32137

What is the vomeronasal organ (VNO)?

The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a cone-shaped organ in the nasal cavity, which is believed to be one of the body's receptors of pheromones. More, specifically, the VNO, which is part of the accessory olfactory system in the nose, does not respond to normal scents, but may detect odorless, barely perceptible pheromones.

Other schools of thought believe that it is not the VNO but rather cells in our main olfactory system and their affects on hormones secreted by the hypothalamus that are responsible for the affects of pheromones.

Learn more about the science behind pheromones here.

What are optimized pheromones?

Optimized pheromones are lab-certified pheromone formulations that have the optimum concentration of biologically active pheromones scientifically proven to produce behavior-altering results -- particularly as sexual attractants. Optimized pheromone formulations do not necessarily contain the maximum level of pheromones available on the market, but rather contain the greatest degree (and combination)of human pheromones that trigger a conditioned biological response in humans that, in turn, dictate their sexual behavior. Optimized pheromones also release neurotransmitters that directly modify the behavior of the opposite sex, such as triggering sexual excitement. For example:

Optimized pheromones for men are scientifically proven to bring about an increase in the luteinizing hormone (LH) in women, thereby causing a woman to have a heightened sexual responsiveness to a man. This LH surge elevates a woman's predisposition towards sexual activity.

Optimized pheromones for women are scientifically proven to bring about a biochemical surge in men, thereby causing a man to have a heightened sexual responsiveness to a woman. This biochemical surge is what makes a man fiercely determined to copulate.