Understanding evolution, adaptation, and phenotype
Posted on January 19, 2013 by James Kohl.
Free full text: Scott EC (2013) Front. Gene. 3:303. doi:10.3389/fgene.2012.00303
Excerpt: “The differential transmission of genes over time produces evolutionary change, and ultimately, with speciation, the branching of the tree of life.”
My comment: The differential transmission of genes depends on the availability of nutrients. The metabolism of nutrients to species-specific pheromones enables natural selection. Natural selection is for pheromones that signal nutrient-dependent species-specific reproductive fitness and genetic diversity, which are expressed in the phenotype of individuals of all species.
The reproduction of individuals is controlled by pheromones in all species. Nutrients and pheromones cause the epigenetic landscape to become the physical landscape of DNA via their epigenetic effects on intracellular signaling and stochastic gene expression. Suffice it to say that the molecular mechanisms involved are the same in all species that have adaptively evolved. Simply put, the bottom-up control of gene expression by the epigenetic effects of nutrients enables individual survival. The top-down control of reproduction by the epigenetic effects of species-specific pheromones is exemplified in species from microbes to man.
Thus, there is one way to get from gene expression to behavior and back. That way is nutrient chemical-dependent and pheromone-controlled. It is chemical ecology that enables life’s diversity. Understanding the concept of nutrient-chemical dependent pheromone-controlled phenotypic expression is the key to understanding evolution, adaptation, and phenotype. None of these three things can be understood outside the context of the basic principles of biology and levels of biological organization, which are required to epigenetically link sensory cause to gene activation, to ingestive behavior, to reproduction, and back. For example, in my model, “Olfaction and odor receptors provide a clear evolutionary trail that can be followed from unicellular organisms to insects to humans.”
This model for all evolved phenotypes requires Creation of the first cell. Subsequently, the availability of food determines the ability of the first cell to diversify and interact with the pheromone-controlled diversity of life that Creation of the first nutrient chemical-dependent cell enabled. At the advent of sexual reproduction in yeasts, for example, sexually dimorphic cell types develop due to differences in glucose uptake, and pheromones signal epigenetically determined sex differences in the MAT locus of genes.
Escape from this pervasive model of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled evolved adaptations, which are phenotypically expressed, may require a comparable model. Alternatively, there is the requirement for the ongoing belief in a theory of adaptive evolution that has not been scientifically supported by anything researchers have learned about molecular epigenetics. In the context of that theory, belief, and disbelief, others have addressed the comparatively weak mentalizing abilities of people that “…render the representation of personified divine beings unintuitive.”
Retired medical laboratory scientist
Try Our Potent Pheromones Risk Free!
Backed by Scientific Research AND
a 100% Money Back Guarantee!
With our no hassle 60 day money back guarantee you have nothing to lose.Read Our Risk Free Guarantee to you!
Order by Mail or FAX
Trademarks & Notices: LuvEssentials is not affiliated in any way with WebMD, CNN, Discovery Health. All trademarks and registered trademarks appearing on LuvEssentials are the property of their respective owners.
Orders that were shipped by free USPS Mail and are returned to us will be assessed a return processing fee of $7.00 US Dollars. Orders totaling over $190.00 US Dollars, before any discount, that are returned to us will be assessed a return processing fee of 25%.
Please note, the testimonials we display are all real; however, any photos accompanying these testimonials are stock photography, not actual customers. We do this to protect the privacy of our customers.
Also, in accordance with FTC guidelines, we want to make it explicitly clear that the testimonials we display throughout this website are based on the unique experiences that some of our customers have shared with us. We cannot promise that you will experience similar benefits from using our product. If you are not satisfied with our product for any reason, simply return the product within 60 days for a full refund excluding the costs of shipping and handling. Please contact us with any questions you may have.